may over-use certain connectives and discourse markers uses a range of connectives and discourse markers but not always appropriately uses a range of connectives and discourse markers with some flexibility ★ I’ve chosen to tell you about a catchy tune from my childhood, that I happen to remember very well, DESPITE THE FACT that I haven’t sung it for many years. ★ WELL, my memory is definitely failing me WHEN IT COMES TO THE PLACE where I was when I sang it the first time - I have absolutely no recollection of that. 【Balancing contrasting points 比较】 ★on (the) one hand & on the other hand, while, whereas ★常用于回答adv +disadv 类问题的衔接过渡 •While x is very +ve, it can sometimes be very –ve. While having a mobile phone makes our life a lot easier, it can sometimes be very problematic, especially when you reply too much on it. •On the one hand, x can be great when you …, on the other hand, it is not very good for … On the one hand, living in a house is great when you want some more personal space or space for friends gathering, on the other hand, it is not very good for those who are too lazy to do house chores. 【Emphasising a contrast 对比】 however, nevertheless (formal), mind you, still, yet, in spite of this/that, despite this/that, ★however, nevertheless, 强调转折，第二个观点与第一个矛盾 •Our local government has promised to improve air quality. So far, however, little has been achieved. •There is little chance that we will succeed. Nevertheless, it is important that we try. ★mind you (less formal) & still •I don’t like the job. But mind you/still, the money’s OK. •He tells me he’s broke, and yet he owns three houses. •The train was an hour late. In spite of this, I managed to get to the meeting in time. 【Concession and counter argument 让步与反面观点】 ★Concession：it is true, certainly, of course ★Counter argument: however, even so, but, nevertheless, nonetheless, still •I don’t think competition between young children is a good thing. It is true that/well， certainly/of course, there are benefits of competition, like encouraging them to learn and promoting excellence. But the way I see it/even so, competition between young children can have negative effects on their psychological development. •Very few people understand Hawking’s theory. Of course, everybody has heard of him, but hardly anybody could tell you what his theories are. •I’m glad to have a place of my own. It’s true it’s a bit small and it’s a long way from the city center, and it does seem cramped. Still, it’s a home.